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* Dis-un-empowerment: The removal of those performance-influencing factors (real or believed) that are thought to be un-empowering by the individual or individuals.
A few years ago, Frank Navran had the opportunity to observe the role that perception plays in people's ability to manage obstacles. And he used an approach that Ken Junkins shared with me many years ago that we've used with many organizations in a wide variety of situations. The model is quite simple, and since it requires little preparation, can be utilized as needed or delivered in a meeting situation when warranted.
Frank was involved in a performance improvement project and asked to observe a work group to identify the behavioral, attitudinal and/or skills and knowledge differences between the exemplary performers, average performers and poor performers.
The intent was to identify those differences so that an intervention could be devised to make the average and poor performers more like their exemplary peers to raise overall unit performance levels.
What ensued was rather frustrating for the consultant and the client. Aside from the actual performance results there were no noticeable behavioral differences. The only apparent difference was the workers' response to the question, "What is keeping you from performing at a higher level?
Their significance was twofold:
1. As all employees worked under near identical conditions nothing differed except their perception of the number of obstacles to exemplary performance facing them.
2. The differences seemed to be more perceptual than real. This lead the consultant to the hypothesis that in this client's organization the performance difference might be related to the employee's perceptions about his or her own power to remove the roadblocks to higher level performance.
Further testing proved him right. In addition, the consultant observed that employee perceptions fell into four sets or categories that could be generalized and applied to other cases. These can be drawn as a Square, of course:
Category 1 - THE BRICK WALL
Some roadblocks are truly unalterable. There are things in the real world facing people that inhibit their performance which they are not likely to change: the effectiveness of a foreign competitor's product, the slumping national economy, the international exchange rate, the organizational structure at the organization, the funding and paperwork processes for new product development, etc. These are all factors which affect employee performance but are well beyond individual or collective control. Characterize these as brick walls: immovable and real.
Category 2 - THE PARTITION
The second category of roadblocks are those that can be managed through with effort, time, money and/or additional personnel, or other resources. The individual employee might make some degree of progress in overcoming this particular inhibitor to performance. Often a small group of employees can make even more progress collectively. And, most importantly, this type of roadblock can be managed in large part or totally, if supervision or management gets involved. This type of roadblock is characterized as a partition, since a partition, if pushed from the bottom, might move slightly, but if pushed from a higher level will often topple. These are real roadblocks which the employees require assistance to remove.
Category 3 - THE PAPER WALL
The third category was reminiscent of a football game where the home team burst through a paper barrier to the cheers of the crowd at the start. Until tested, this roadblock often looks impenetrable. Workplace examples are common, and include the belief that the boss will not approve, that it won't be supported by another department, that it is "policy" or the way things have always been done, etc.
But people discover that these beliefs aren't true when they test these perceptions. Others have done things differently and are doing things differently. But, unless tested, this roadblock is just as effective in preventing performance as the first two. These are manageable, but also real.
Category 4 - THE MINDSET
This type of roadblock is the most troubling to management. It represents the untested beliefs and perceptions. When people believe they can't, they are correct. These roadblocks are de-actualizing and restrictive, yet arbitrarily so in that they really do not exist. Interestingly, these are generally the most common of all the different types and the ones that block the below average performers from improvement.
Using the Model
It is always fascinating to observe how different employees manage the different roadblocks they face. Top performers, as a group, are generally not impeded by many of the things that get in the way of average or poor performers. Their model of how things really work appears to be more proactive and behaviorally-oriented. They are willing to test the roadblocks to see which are which and are often quick to refer the Category 1 and 2 roadblocks to management whereas they push through the 3s and 4s.
Average performers, on the other hand, are often observed to be stymied by the roadblocks in many cases. Some may stubbornly push the1s and try to get them to move even though they do not have the power to do so. They may often spend a lot of individual time on the 2s, trying to generate change and feeling good when they manage to get past them; this behavior, while well-intentioned, may not be time and energy effective!
Poor performers can generate long lists of roadblocks that get in the way of getting things done. They face innumerable hurdles in their everyday job and can constantly point out the things that cause their performance levels to be low.
How to deliver the theme:
So, here's an empowering exercise that you can easily do to help reshape the thinking of the poor performers and generate new alternative behaviors among the average ones.
Use a flip chart and masking tape and start a meeting with the question, "What are some of the roadblocks to getting things done around here?" or similar. Allow the group to brainstorm and write everything down.
(Note: You might want to set the Rules as, "All comments are okay, everything gets written down and we discuss the specifics of each idea when we complete the list. No negative reactions are allowed in this part of the meeting.")
Write all of the ideas down without reframing or rewording. Changing the wording might change the meaning or it may be perceived as a "put-down" to an employee who might then not participate any longer. Generate the participation of everyone, but expect more roadblocks to come from the average and poor performers. Write them all down. You may also prompt, when the going gets slow, by saying something as, "How about the interdepartmental things?"
Post up the sheets as they become filled and do not be surprised to get 10 or more pages (my personal record: 22 pages!). The more the better.
Once the list is essentially complete, share the model of Roadblock Management with them, describing the categories and the general frameworks of each.
Now, go back through this list and have the group categorize, as best they can, the nature of each of the roadblocks. Let THEM do this -- that way it is their list and not yours!
What you will discover is that 80% of the roadblocks will be 3s and 4s and that the top performers will often offer everyone suggestions as to how to manage the 2s more effectively. The Category 1 roadblocks are those that you should volunteer to escalate and some of the 2s might be addressed by a team of your people, including some of the poorer performers.
Celebrate any ideas for improvement and attempts to address specific problems. And be sure to get out of the way as the group and individuals now engage in some dis-un-empowerment.
© Performance Management Company, 1998 All Rights Reserved.
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